The recent energy crisis and economic and environmental sustainability are among the biggest challenges in the contemporary world. As one of the primary tools for research and decision-making in the areas of economic development, energy policy and ecology, national accounting systems (NAS) have an important role in answering these challenges. The central position of national accounts in statistical systems, and along with their worldwide use and acceptance, reinforces their usefulness and importance as a source role as a universal language and body of factual information on the economy, energy and environment. Due to their ability to provide a comprehensive picture of the economic system, the models that are based on NAS (e.g., input-output and stock-flow consistent models) are widely used in environmental studies, linking economic and environmental variables on the demand and supply sides. All these considerations motivate the proposal of this Special Issue, which aims to collect empirical studies and theoretical contributions exploring the linkages between the economy, energy and the environment.