COVID-19 in US Economy: Structural Analysis and Policy Proposals

Based on an input–output framework, this paper analyses the intersectoral structure of the US economy and estimates the COVID-19 multiplier effects on this economy. For this purpose we employ a model of matrix multipliers—which, except for the technical conditions of production, also considers imports, income distribution, savings, and consumption patterns—using data from the input–output table of the US economy for the year 2015, i.e., the latest available data at the time of this research (a few months after the US presidential election). Furthermore, we detect the key commodities that are considered appropriate for implementing economic policies in the short term, i.e., for boosting growth and job creation, as well as the commodities that are suitable for long-term, structural policies. Our findings suggest that short-term policies for a direct recovery after COVID-19 should be based on public consumption expenditures and investments as well as through exports. It is also shown that there is a great variety of short-term and long-term policies that can be adjusted according to the challenges of the US economy. Finally, for reasons of completeness, we estimate the impact of the main plans of the American president’s policy program, i.e., the “American Jobs Plan and the American Families Plan”, and we show that both plans would cumulatively increase the US output by about USD 6.07 trillion over the next ten years, not only helping the US economy recover from the COVID-19 shock but also ensuring macroeconomic stability and social cohesion.

A Race to the Bottom: Measuring Income Loss and Poverty in Greece

More than a decade after the 2009 crisis, the standards of living of the Greek population are still contracting and the prospects are gloomy. In this policy note, Vlassis Missos, Research Associate Nikolaos Rodousakis, and George Soklis deal with how to approach the measurement of income loss and poverty in Greece and argue for the use of household disposable income (HDI) in estimating adjustments, which offers a more accurate appreciation of the burden falling on the Greek population. They underline the significance of replacing a “southern-European model” of social protection with a passive safety net model—and the centrality to the latter model of embracing ideas of internal devaluation and fiscal consolidation—and suggest a better measure of poverty, for the case of Greece specifically and in general for developed economies in which front-loaded neoliberal policies are imposed. Finally, they comment on the sacrifice that would be required if fiscal discipline were to return in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns.

The Impact of COVID-19 on the US Economy: The Multiplier Effects of Tourism

This article explores the multiplier effects on domestic product, employment, and the external sector of the US economy due to the decline of tourism activities during the pandemic. For this purpose, we use an input-output model and the latest available input-output data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD’s) database. It was found that for every USD million decrease in tourism receipts, the net output decreases about USD 1.53 million, the level of employment decreases about 16.86 persons, imports decrease about USD 0.20 million, while the comparative analysis of these results with the economy’s average multipliers indicates that tourism constitutes a key sector of the US economy. From the evaluation of the results, it is deduced that the decline of tourism activities recorded in the year 2020 accounts for about one-fourth of the observed recession in the US economy.

A Recovery for Whom? The Case of the Greek Tourism Sector

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed multiple risks faced by economies whose production structures depend on the volatility of international conditions. In the case of Greece, this has manifested itself in the severe impact the pandemic has had on one of the linchpins of the Greek economy: the tourism sector. Vlassis Missos, Nikolaos Rodousakis, and George Soklis document the impact of the pandemic on tourism and the significance of tourism revenues for Greece’s 2021 GDP recovery. They argue that the distributional effect of the tourism sector plays a significant role in overall income inequality in Greece and develop a number of policy recommendations aiming to correct some of the problematic aspects of the country’s tourism sector.

The RRP multiplier effects on the Greek economy

This study explores the multiplier effects brought by changes in the components of autonomous demand following the Greek Recovery and Resilience Plan (RRP) for the period 2021-26. The effects are estimated in terms of output and employment of the Greek economy. The findings suggest that the 18.2 bn. euro from RRP would lead to a total (direct and indirect) increase in output of about 12.2 bn. euro and increase in employment of about 390,000 persons. Therefore, it would lead to a total increase in output of about 7.2% and in employment of about 10%. From the analysis of the effects on output and employment per cost type, it follows that the expenditures of RRP on Construction and Services would lead to a total increase in output of about 5.4%. Finally, our intersectoral analysis concludes that the RRP program would lead to a short-term boost on terms of output and employment, while the impact would be mild to the structure of the Greek economy. In other words, we are not so optimistic that the RRP would lead to a fundamental economic and social transformation that combines economic efficiency with natural, social and economic sustainability.

The COVID-19 multiplier effects of tourism on the German and Spanish economies

Based on a multisectoral model of single production and using data from the input–output tables, this paper estimates the COVID-19 tourism multiplier effects on output, employment and trade balance of the German and Spanish economies. It is found that the decrease of international travel receipts recorded in the year 2020 correspond to a decrease in GDP of about 0.58% in the German economy and a decrease in GDP of about 4.54% in the Spanish economy. The evaluation of the results reveals that the higher observed recession in the Spanish economy than in the German economy can be attributed to the relatively stronger dependency of the former on the highly vulnerable in the pandemic tourism industry.

Μπορεί ο τουρισμός να σώσει την ανάπτυξη για το 2021;

Στην παρούσα ανάλυση διερευνούμε τις πολλαπλασιαστικές επιδράσεις που θα έχει για το 2021 η μεταβολή τόσο των συνιστωσών της αυτόνομης ζήτησης όσο και, μεμονωμένα, των ταξιδιωτικών εισπράξεων στο ΑΕΠ, την απασχόληση και τις εισαγωγές της ελληνικής οικονομίας.Τα ευρήματα μας δείχνουν ότι ο τουρισμός δύναται για το 2021 να είναι ο τυλοβάτης» της ανάπτυξης και σε αυτό το γεγονός φαίνεται ότι βασίζεται και ο σχετικός κυβερνητικός σχεδιασμός για το 2021. Αυτό το γεγονός όμως πρέπει να θεωρηθεί παροδικό, καθώς οφείλεται στις ειδικές συνθήκες που επικρατήσαν στην ελληνική αλλά και στη διεθνή οικονομία λόγω της πανδημίας COVID-19. Μακροχρόνια, έχει αποδειχθεί ότι ο τουρισμός δεν μπορεί, λόγω των ειδικών χαρακτηριστικών του, να παίξει το ρόλο της «ατμομηχανής» της ελληνικής οικονομίας.

Inter-sectoral analysis of the Greek economy and the COVID-19 multiplier effects

Using a multi-sector model, with joint-products and heterogeneous labour, and data from the Supply and Use Tables, this paper analyses the inter-sectoral structure of the Greek economy and estimates the COVID-19 multiplier effects on this economy. It is found that the economy is heavily dependent on imports of industrial commodities, while significant multiplier effects are concentrated, primarily, in services and, secondarily, in the primary production. Furthermore, using these estimations and the available facts and figures about the COVID-19 impact on the elements of autonomous demand in 2020, we estimate a decrease in GDP in the range of 5.67–7.16 per cent, a decrease in the levels of employment in the range of 5.32–7.20 per cent, and a decrease in total imports in the range of 10.40–15.53 per cent, respectively. The evaluation of the results of our analysis indicates that, on the one hand, a short-term demand management recovery programme could be implemented, mainly, through the Public Sector and, secondarily, the Tourism Sector, while, on the other hand, a long-term growth-oriented policy should be directed towards industrial production and implement policies of import substitution.

Η σημασία του κλάδου λιανικού εμπορίου στην ελληνική οικονομία και οι επιπτώσεις της πανδημίας

Σκοπός του παρόντος είναι η διερεύνηση των διακλαδικών διασυνδέσεων του κλάδου λιανικού εμπορίου της ελληνικής οικονομίας και η εκτίμηση των επιπτώσεων της πανδημίας. Από τα ευρήματα μας για τις «προς τα εμπρός» και τις «προς τα πίσω» διασυνδέσεις, καταλήγουμε στο συμπέρασμα ότι τη μεγαλύτερη αλληλεξάρτηση εμφανίζει ο κλάδος λιανικού εμπορίου με τον γεωργικό τομέα και τη βιομηχανία, ενώ όσον αφορά τις υπηρεσίες υψηλή αλληλεξάρτηση καταγράφεται μόνον με τον τουριστικό τομέα. Συνεπώς, ο κλάδος λιανικού εμπορίου είναι υψηλής σημαντικότητας κλάδος και τα μέτρα στήριξης στην παρούσα φάση από την πολιτεία κρίνονται ως επιβεβλημένα. Όσον αφορά την επόμενη μέρα μετά την πανδημία, η υψηλή αλληλεξάρτηση του κλάδου με τον τουριστικό τομέα δείχνει ότι οι επιδόσεις του τουρισμού θα καθορίσει σε μεγάλο βαθμό και την πορεία του κλάδου.

Ο (μη) Εφικτός Ρόλος των Επενδύσεων στη Μετά-COVID-19 Πορεία της Ελληνικής Οικονομίας

Η πορεία της ελληνικής οικονομίας στη μετά-COVID-19 εποχή, εν πολλοίς, θα εξαρτηθεί από τις αποφάσεις που θα ληφθούν το επόμενο διάστημα για την κατανομή των διαθέσιμων εθνικών και κοινοτικών πόρων σε επενδυτικά προγράμματα. Στο παρόν άρθρο, συμβάλλουμε στον εν λόγω διάλογο παρουσιάζοντας εκτιμήσεις για τις πολλαπλασιαστικές επιδράσεις των επενδύσεων στο ΑΕΠ, την απασχόληση και τις εισαγωγές της ελληνικής οικονομίας. Τα ευρήματά μας δείχνουν ότι ο εργαλειακός ρόλος των επενδύσεων στην περίπτωση της ελληνικής οικονομίας δεν είναι, όπως εμφατικά τονίζεται, να συμπαρασύρουν βραχυπροθέσμα την αύξηση του ΑΕΠ, αλλά η μέσω του καταλλήλου διακλαδικού προγραμματισμού μακροπρόθεσμη συμβολή τους στη διαμόρφωση ενός παραγωγικού προτύπου ικανού να αντεπεξέλθει στο διεθνή ανταγωνισμό.